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ARTICAL TITLE

THE EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN TANZANIAN’S SMALL SCALE MINING FIRMS: DOES LOCATION MATTER?

Abstract

This paper aimed at analysing management practices on occupational health and safety in Tanzania’s small-scale mining firms whether location matters. Health and safety forms one of the human rights and it promotes hardworking and comforts employees after being secured, which in return has a positive impact on the national development. This study examined the influence of location in the implementation of occupational health and safety at the workplace in the Lake and Northern zones. Multiple grouping analysis has been used to analyse data collected by questionnaire methods from 189 and 108 small scale mining firms in the Lake zone and Northern zone. All formulated hypotheses were tested and the results demonstrate that location has no influence on the implementation of Organisation Safety Support (OSS) and Proactive Hazard Control (PHC) programmes in the workplace. These results imply that safety training and employees’ communication are implemented the same way despite the difference in location on effective implementation of health and safety in the workplace. Therefore health and safety should be maintained and enhanced to ensure safety of all employees in the workplace.

Author

Dominic Nkolimwa

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ARTICAL TITLE

THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTALBACKGROUND ON CHILDREN’S INVOLVEMENT IN CHILD LABOUR IN TANZANIA: A CASE OF KINONDONI AND KIGAMBONI MUNICIPALITIES IN DAR-ES- SALAAM

Abstract

This study examines the influence of parental background on children's involvement in child labour in Tanzania. Its central argument is based on the ground that the parental background is one of the major social determinants associated with child labour in sand and gravel quarrying activities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study used a mixed method approach (pragmatism) guided by a descriptive research design. It involved a sample size of 92 people, to whom questionnaires were administered. In addition it involved 16 key informants. The sample included children, parents, social welfare officers and ward executive officers. The respondents were randomly selected while the key informants were purposively selected. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to collect primary data while secondary data were collected from available written texts. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse quantitative data while qualitative data were analysed through thematic analysis. The major findings show that parents assign their children activities to earn a living. These children engage in sand and gravel quarrying, the same activites performed by their parents. The paper concludes that parental background directly influences child labour among children living in sand and gravel quarrying places in Tanzania. Therefore it is recommended that to get rid of the problem of child labour, the government should establish child labour programmes to compose, subscribe to and to educate the society about a body of ethical principles against child labour. If this is done, people would look for ways to assist child labour in Dar es Salaam. Further to that, various seminars and trainings should be conducted to raise public awareness about the problem. Furthermore, the NGOs should support poor households with Income Generating Activities (IGAs) NGOs by conducting advocacy and lobbying in change of policies and laws that encourage child labour.

Author

Hussein Kisusu and Twaha I. Waziri

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ARTICAL TITLE

ASSESSING PUPILS' KNOWLEDGE ON REPORTING CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE IN SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN DAR ES SALAAM - TANZANIA

Abstract

This study is aimed at assessing pupils' knowledge on child sexual abuse (CSA) reporting points from selected primary schools, namely Buza (Temeke), Mwananyamala B (Kinondoni), Ubungo National Housing (Ubungo), and Tabata (Ilala). The study is exploratory in nature and it uses qualitative research methods to explore pupils' knowledge on reporting sites. The study utilized focus group discussion, where a total of 96 pupils participated in the study. The ages of the recruited pupils ranged between 10 and 14 years. The findings revealed that the pupils had limited knowledge of reporting points. However, they are aware of police and parents to be the individuals who can protect them. Sometimes, they prefer sharing their CSA encounters with teachers because they trust them. This study recommends a school-based programme intended to impart knowledge on reporting points.

Author

Johnas A. Buhori

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ARTICAL TITLE

THE STIGMA EFFECT ON PROVISION OF HEALTHCARE SERVICES FOR PREGNANT WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV IN TANZANIA

Abstract

Globally, more than a half of the adults living with HIV are women. In addition, the stigma faced by pregnant women living with HIV is a major barrier when it comes to their access to healthcare services. Stigma to pregnant women could be further compounded by lack of support from family and the community at large. Therefore, the study examines the relationship between stigma and other barriers to HIV positive pregnant women's access to healthcare. In addition, it examines family and community for the women's access to healthcare services. The study on which the paper is based was conducted in Njombe, Mtwara and Dodoma regions. The study adopted the cross-sectional research design and data was collected from 311 respondents using a pre-structured questionnaire with open and close-ended questions. Generally, the findings show that there is a significant relationship between stigma and barriers to healthcare services for pregnant women living with HIV. The findings also show that the quality of services received by the women was poor. Additionally, it was also found that there were significant moderating effects of family involvement and community support on stigma and barriers to healthcare services. The study observed that health systems cannot achieve the prevention of VT targets without the involvement of the families and community. Therefore, in order to scale up quality services and supportive environments, there must be community involvement in healthcare services particularly conversations between the community and healthcare providers to accommodate community perception about HIV treatment and care. The study recommends that there is a need to promote family involvement and community support to curb stigma and thus reduce barriers to the healthcare services among pregnant women living with HIV. Moreover, more efforts should be exerted on the improvement of the access to health care services.

Author

Nuru A. Kalufya

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ARTICAL TITLE

DETERMINANTS OF EMPLOYEES ROMOTION: EVIDENCE FROM LITERATURE REVIEW

Abstract

The study was carried out in the public sector to examine the determinants of employees' promotion in Tanzania. Data was obtained by reviewing literature sources particularly journal articles. Thematic analysis was used in data analysis. The review indicated that there was favouritism, poor performance evaluation that hindered employees’ promotion in the public sector. However, employees experience as well as seniority was considered in promoting employees in the senior positions. Therefore, in order for the public sector to attain efficiency and effectiveness in promoting employees, the following were recommended; there must be an emphasis on merit-based promotions by promoting individuals who qualify for promotions in terms of good performance, acceptable level of education and enough work experience. Other factors are such as the proper implementation of the scheme of service, promotion policy and adequate budget allocation for promotion in senior positions, the aspects of ethical values should be adhered to because leaders are role models in the organization. Theoretically, the of Human Capital Theory and Screening theory are applied in the public sector as employees struggle to grow in their careers through training for them to be promoted. Education alone is not only the guarantee for promotion but also efficiency and performance though there are some bottlenecks in their application. The findings of the study are expected to inform policymakers, Human Resource officers, stakeholders and government officials on how to address effectively employees’ promotions and attain good service provision to the public.

Author

Prisca Kimaryo

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ARTICAL TITLE

HUMAN RESOURCE FUNCTIONS AND ORGANISATION SUSTAINABILITY: INSIGHTS FROM REGISTERED TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY ESTABLISHMENTS (THES) IN TANZANIA

Abstract

This study explored the role(s) of Human Resource (HR) functions in building sustainable organisations with particular attention given to Tourism and Hospitality Establishments (THEs) in Tanzania. The study employed a qualitative strategy whereby cross-sectional research design was adopted. Data were collected through face-to- face interviews with key HR officers from twelve (12) private-owned THEs in Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar. The sample size was drawn based on purposive sampling technique. The findings indicated that the majority of respondents confirmed HR functions to have a role towards organisational sustainability on a variety of aspects: leadership development, training and development, change management, collaboration and teamwork, talent management, diversity and multiculturalism, ethics and governance, health and safety as well as workforce engagement. HR functions play a key role in influencing organizational performance in general and sustainability in particular. Findings from the present study confirmed that HR functions are vital for achieving organisational sustainability. It further indicates that organisations need to continually invest in HR functions for its growth that will bring about employee optimal job performance for the sustenance of the organisation. Therefore, proper practice of HR functions may help an organisation to increase efficiency and improve working systems. This will enable THEs to achieve broad stakeholders' engagement, holistic integration and develop the necessary capabilities to achieve organisational sustainability.

Author

Saliel Kanza

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