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ARTICAL TITLE

THE EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN TANZANIAN’S SMALL SCALE MINING FIRMS: DOES LOCATION MATTER?

Abstract

This paper aimed at analysing management practices on occupational health and safety in Tanzania’s small-scale mining firms whether location matters. Health and safety forms one of the human rights and it promotes hardworking and comforts employees after being secured, which in return has a positive impact on the national development. This study examined the influence of location in the implementation of occupational health and safety at the workplace in the Lake and Northern zones. Multiple grouping analysis has been used to analyse data collected by questionnaire methods from 189 and 108 small scale mining firms in the Lake zone and Northern zone. All formulated hypotheses were tested and the results demonstrate that location has no influence on the implementation of Organisation Safety Support (OSS) and Proactive Hazard Control (PHC) programmes in the workplace. These results imply that safety training and employees’ communication are implemented the same way despite the difference in location on effective implementation of health and safety in the workplace. Therefore health and safety should be maintained and enhanced to ensure safety of all employees in the workplace.

Author

Dominic Nkolimwa

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ARTICAL TITLE

THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTALBACKGROUND ON CHILDREN’S INVOLVEMENT IN CHILD LABOUR IN TANZANIA: A CASE OF KINONDONI AND KIGAMBONI MUNICIPALITIES IN DAR-ES- SALAAM

Abstract

This study examines the influence of parental background on children's involvement in child labour in Tanzania. Its central argument is based on the ground that the parental background is one of the major social determinants associated with child labour in sand and gravel quarrying activities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study used a mixed method approach (pragmatism) guided by a descriptive research design. It involved a sample size of 92 people, to whom questionnaires were administered. In addition it involved 16 key informants. The sample included children, parents, social welfare officers and ward executive officers. The respondents were randomly selected while the key informants were purposively selected. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to collect primary data while secondary data were collected from available written texts. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse quantitative data while qualitative data were analysed through thematic analysis. The major findings show that parents assign their children activities to earn a living. These children engage in sand and gravel quarrying, the same activites performed by their parents. The paper concludes that parental background directly influences child labour among children living in sand and gravel quarrying places in Tanzania. Therefore it is recommended that to get rid of the problem of child labour, the government should establish child labour programmes to compose, subscribe to and to educate the society about a body of ethical principles against child labour. If this is done, people would look for ways to assist child labour in Dar es Salaam. Further to that, various seminars and trainings should be conducted to raise public awareness about the problem. Furthermore, the NGOs should support poor households with Income Generating Activities (IGAs) NGOs by conducting advocacy and lobbying in change of policies and laws that encourage child labour.

Author

Hussein Kisusu and Twaha I. Waziri

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ARTICAL TITLE

ASSESSING PUPILS' KNOWLEDGE ON REPORTING CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE IN SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN DAR ES SALAAM - TANZANIA

Abstract

This study is aimed at assessing pupils' knowledge on child sexual abuse (CSA) reporting points from selected primary schools, namely Buza (Temeke), Mwananyamala B (Kinondoni), Ubungo National Housing (Ubungo), and Tabata (Ilala). The study is exploratory in nature and it uses qualitative research methods to explore pupils' knowledge on reporting sites. The study utilized focus group discussion, where a total of 96 pupils participated in the study. The ages of the recruited pupils ranged between 10 and 14 years. The findings revealed that the pupils had limited knowledge of reporting points. However, they are aware of police and parents to be the individuals who can protect them. Sometimes, they prefer sharing their CSA encounters with teachers because they trust them. This study recommends a school-based programme intended to impart knowledge on reporting points.

Author

Johnas A. Buhori

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ARTICAL TITLE

THE STIGMA EFFECT ON PROVISION OF HEALTHCARE SERVICES FOR PREGNANT WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV IN TANZANIA

Abstract

Globally, more than a half of the adults living with HIV are women. In addition, the stigma faced by pregnant women living with HIV is a major barrier when it comes to their access to healthcare services. Stigma to pregnant women could be further compounded by lack of support from family and the community at large. Therefore, the study examines the relationship between stigma and other barriers to HIV positive pregnant women's access to healthcare. In addition, it examines family and community for the women's access to healthcare services. The study on which the paper is based was conducted in Njombe, Mtwara and Dodoma regions. The study adopted the cross-sectional research design and data was collected from 311 respondents using a pre-structured questionnaire with open and close-ended questions. Generally, the findings show that there is a significant relationship between stigma and barriers to healthcare services for pregnant women living with HIV. The findings also show that the quality of services received by the women was poor. Additionally, it was also found that there were significant moderating effects of family involvement and community support on stigma and barriers to healthcare services. The study observed that health systems cannot achieve the prevention of VT targets without the involvement of the families and community. Therefore, in order to scale up quality services and supportive environments, there must be community involvement in healthcare services particularly conversations between the community and healthcare providers to accommodate community perception about HIV treatment and care. The study recommends that there is a need to promote family involvement and community support to curb stigma and thus reduce barriers to the healthcare services among pregnant women living with HIV. Moreover, more efforts should be exerted on the improvement of the access to health care services.

Author

Nuru A. Kalufya

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ARTICAL TITLE

DETERMINANTS OF EMPLOYEES PROMOTION: EVIDENCE FROM LITERATURE REVIEW

Abstract

The study was carried out in the public sector to examine the determinants of employees' promotion in Tanzania. Data was obtained by reviewing literature sources particularly journal articles. Thematic analysis was used in data analysis. The review indicated that there was favouritism, poor performance evaluation that hindered employees’ promotion in the public sector. However, employees experience as well as seniority was considered in promoting employees in the senior positions. Therefore, in order for the public sector to attain efficiency and effectiveness in promoting employees, the following were recommended; there must be an emphasis on merit-based promotions by promoting individuals who qualify for promotions in terms of good performance, acceptable level of education and enough work experience. Other factors are such as the proper implementation of the scheme of service, promotion policy and adequate budget allocation for promotion in senior positions, the aspects of ethical values should be adhered to because leaders are role models in the organization. Theoretically, the of Human Capital Theory and Screening theory are applied in the public sector as employees struggle to grow in their careers through training for them to be promoted. Education alone is not only the guarantee for promotion but also efficiency and performance though there are some bottlenecks in their application. The findings of the study are expected to inform policymakers, Human Resource officers, stakeholders and government officials on how to address effectively employees’ promotions and attain good service provision to the public.

Author

Prisca Kimaryo

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ARTICAL TITLE

HUMAN RESOURCE FUNCTIONS AND ORGANISATION SUSTAINABILITY: INSIGHTS FROM REGISTERED TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY ESTABLISHMENTS (THES) IN TANZANIA

Abstract

This study explored the role(s) of Human Resource (HR) functions in building sustainable organisations with particular attention given to Tourism and Hospitality Establishments (THEs) in Tanzania. The study employed a qualitative strategy whereby cross-sectional research design was adopted. Data were collected through face-to- face interviews with key HR officers from twelve (12) private-owned THEs in Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar. The sample size was drawn based on purposive sampling technique. The findings indicated that the majority of respondents confirmed HR functions to have a role towards organisational sustainability on a variety of aspects: leadership development, training and development, change management, collaboration and teamwork, talent management, diversity and multiculturalism, ethics and governance, health and safety as well as workforce engagement. HR functions play a key role in influencing organizational performance in general and sustainability in particular. Findings from the present study confirmed that HR functions are vital for achieving organisational sustainability. It further indicates that organisations need to continually invest in HR functions for its growth that will bring about employee optimal job performance for the sustenance of the organisation. Therefore, proper practice of HR functions may help an organisation to increase efficiency and improve working systems. This will enable THEs to achieve broad stakeholders' engagement, holistic integration and develop the necessary capabilities to achieve organisational sustainability.

Author

Saliel Kanza

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ARTICAL TITLE

FOOD INSECURITY AMONG WORKING POOR AND THEIR COPING STRATEGIES IN DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA

Abstract

Food insecurity is one of the contemporary global challenges as a large number of people in the world have inadequate access to sufficient and quality food. The objectives of the paper are as follows: to assess the status of food insecurity among working poor class members in Dar es Salaam, examine their coping strategies, and determine the association between the status of food insecurity and coping strategies. The study used a cross-sectional research design. A structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussions (FDGs) were used to collect data from 336 respondents. Chi-square was used to determine the association between the status of food insecurity of the working poor and their coping strategies in Dar es Salaam. The findings show that the working poor mainly relied on loans from friends and relatives and participating in Rotating Savings and Credits Associations (ROSCAs) as coping strategies. Furthermore, less than 20% of the working poor households experienced food insecurity. Coping strategies such as changing the place of residence, receiving financial assistance from friends and relatives, and participating in ROSCAs were significantly associated with food insecurity status of the working poor. It is concluded that food insecurity among the working poor is a relatively invisible aspect. Being a worker with a monthly wage does not prevent the working poor from falling into the food-insecure population category. It is recommended that the information on the association between the status of food insecurity and the coping strategies used by the working poor should be considered in the amendments of policies such as the Food Insecurity Policy for them to be efficient.

Author

Constantin Aloys Njalambaya, Kim Abel Kayunze, and Goodluck Dastan Massawe

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ARTICAL TITLE

REIMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIVERSION PROGRAM IN JUVENILEJUSTICE ADMINISTRATION IN DAR ES SALAAM,TANZANIA: BENEFITSAND CHALLENGES

Abstract

Juvenile justice administration is a cause for concern in Tanzania. Diversion is one of the appropriate approaches to enhance it. This article assesses the effectiveness of the diversion program in Dar es Salaam. It seeks to spell out the benefits of the program and its challenges. The study used qualitative approach and data were collected through in-depth interview, and Focus Group Discussion. Convenience and snowball sampling techniques were used to get participants for the study. The obtained data were analyzed through Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA)with the aid of the ATLAS t.i 9 software. Findings indicate that the program was highly pertinent due to its effectiveness in rehabilitation since it was cost- effective with no stigma and retribution from community members. The study observed some challenges including absence of aftercare services and concerns over the program’s long-term financing for the national roll out; juveniles beingheld in adult prisons; inadequate funding; over- dependence on donor funding; inadequate staff; poor motivation for employees; reliance on secondary prevention and poor leadership skills in the rehabilitation centers.The study concludes that the program was beneficial because of its effectivenessand humaneness. It recommends that the community should be sensitized on the program. Further to that, there is a need for embarking on indigenous practice and capacity building to social welfare officers and law enforcers to enable them to work effectively.

Author

Daudi Simon Chanila, Fauzia Mohamed and Sharon Pittman

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ARTICAL TITLE

THE INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON OCCUPATIONALHEALTH AND SAFETY IN TANZANIAN’S SMALL-SCALE MINING FIRMS

Abstract

This study analyzes theinfluenceofmanagement practices onoccupational health and safety in small-scale mining firms. The implementation of occupational health and safety promotes security, hardworking and comfort of employees after being secured, which in turn has a positive impact on national development. The study examines the influence of management practices on occupational health and safety at workplace. The explanatory research design was used in this study whereby 297 questionnaires were used to collect data from three regions namely Geita, Shinyanga and Arusha. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyze the data collected from 297 respondents. Three hypotheses were tested and results demonstrated that Safety Training (ST) and Employee Communication (EC) have a positive influence on both dimensions of the implementation of Organizational Safety Support (OSS) and Proactive Hazard Control (PHC)). These results imply that safety training and employee’s communication should be enhanced to improve the implementation of health and safety at workplace.

Author

Dominic Nkolimwa

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ARTICAL TITLE

THE INFLUENCE OF EMPLOYEES’ COMMUNICATION ON EMPLOYEES’ ENGAGEMENT IN TANZANIA: A CASE STUDY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

Abstract

The SME sector is one of the most employment creations in Tanzania and it strives to get people work and realize its objectives through proper communication. The study examines the influence of employees’ communication on employees’ engagement in Tanzania SMEs. The study is built on the Social Exchange Theory. It examines the importance of social interaction between individuals at the work place. As the study argues, people tend to respond positively if they perceive communication exchange which is beneficial to them. The study used a cross-sectional design with a sample of 483 SMEs from Dar es Salaam, Morogoro and Manyara regions picked through a stratified sampling method. Data was collected using questionnaire and analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The findings revealed that employees’ communication has a significant influence on employees’ engagement. The study suggests that SME owners and managers should make sure that employees have first- hand information on matters related to their employment and that they should be able to give feedback on employees’ performance.

Author

Judith Msangi

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ARTICAL TITLE

ACCESSIBILITY TO SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICESAMONG TEENAGE MOTHERS IN TANZANIA: A CASE STUDY OF TEMEKE MUNICIPALITY, DAR ES SALAAM REGION

Abstract

This paper is set to examine how teenage mothers face challenges in accessing social welfare services including Sexual and Reproductive Health Services (SRHS). It uses Temeke Municipality, in Dar es Salaam region, as a case study to represent other Municipalities in Dar es Salaam and Tanzania in general. The study used a sample size of 20 participants and a qualitative approach was used to gather information from teenage mothers based on their lived experiences. The Symbolic Interactionism Theory was used to examine the subjective meanings of teenage mothers and social realities associated with accessibility to social welfare services. The purposive sampling technique was used to recruit teenage mothers with relevant knowledge and lived experiences. The study results indicate that ignorance, traditional practices, cultural traits, and witchcraft hinder teenage mothers from accessing and using social welfare services in their communities. The study concludes that accessibility of social welfare services to teenage mothers is vital and inevitable. Thus, Social Welfare Officers should be accessible and available at ward and village levels to assist these teenage mothers in accessing social welfare services. The study recommends that Social Welfare Officers should have correct information about SRHS. Furthermore, teenage mothers should be part of raising awareness to the community about the services provided by Social Welfare Officers.

Author

Leah Omary

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ARTICAL TITLE

THE EFFECTS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT REFORM ON SECONDARYEDUCATION SERVICE DELIVERY IN TANZANIA:THE CASE OF KINONDONI MUNICIPALITY

Abstract

The effects of local government reform on secondary education service delivery in local government authorities (LGAs) remain an empirical challenge and the existing literature on the effect of local government reform on secondary education service delivery in developing countries is still sparse. It has to be borne in mind that local government reform is implemented in a particular financial transparency in KMC so that citizens may trust their government after being furnished with the financial information. This study had the following specific objectives: to examine the factors undermining secondary education service delivery despite local government reform in Kinondoni Municipal Council (KMC); to investigate the (human and financial) resource capacity of KMC in secondary education service delivery; to explore the citizens’participation in hamlet meetings and its effects on secondary education service delivery; and to determine whether public funds in secondary education service delivery in LGAs were utilized without embezzlement.The study used a case study research design and purposive sampling was used to select 86 respondents. The methods of data collection were interview and documentary review while data were analyzed through content analysis. The findings indicate that the factors undermining secondary education were inadequacy of financial and human resources, embezzlement of public funds and weak oversight of the citizens (evidenced by poor attendance in hamlet meetings) in LGAs. These included classrooms being overcrowded with 300 students as such no effective teaching and learning could take place. It is recommended that local government reform should be given priority for KMC to get adequate resources to meet secondary education service delivery, which is the demand of the populace.

Author

Paul Mtasigazya

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